The motor wheels of social complexity in todays world

As a result of this rapid development of technology, we often take things for granted. One of these is the wheel. Take a look around, and you will see wheels everywhere, be it as tyres, or in everyday machinery.

The wheel has even been imbued with symbolic meanings, most famously, perhaps, as a metaphor for the never ending cycle of life. One may be tempted to think that the wheel is just a humble or even primitive invention compared to some of the fancy gadgets that we have today.

Nevertheless, the wheel specifically as a means of transportation was actually invented at a relatively late point of human history. The oldest known wheel found in an archaeological excavation is from Mesopotamia, and dates to around BC.

This period was known as the Bronze Age, which is a relatively late chapter in the story of the development of human civilisation. By this time, human beings were already planting crops, herding domesticated animals, and had some form of social hierarchy. A Mesopotamian wheel. Photo source. One of the reasons why the wheel was invented only at this point in history is due to the fact that metal tools were needed to chisel fine-fitted holes and axles.

This leads to the next reason — the wheel was not just a cylinder rolling on its edge. It was a cylinder that was connected to a stable, stationary platform. This wheel-axle concept was a stroke of genius, but making it was a challenge. The ends of the axle, as well as the holes in the centre of the wheels had to be nearly perfectly smooth and round. Failing to achieve this would result in too much friction between these components, and the wheel would not turn.

Although the axle had to fit snugly in the holes of the wheels, they had to have enough room to allow them to rotate freely. Given the complexity of the wheel-axle combination, it may be unsurprising that the wheel was not initially invented for transportation purposes.

Instead, it has been claimed that wheels were first used by potters. Remember the 5,year-old wheel for Mesopotamia? It seems that the use of wheels for transportation only happened years later.

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The earliest wheels are believed to have been used for pottery making. Some have suggested that due to the immense challenge that the invention of the wheel posed to mankind, it probably happened only once, and spread from its place of origin to other parts of the world. However, others believe it developed independently in separate parts of the world at around the same time. At present, the birthplace of the wheel is said to be either in Mesopotamia or the Eurasian steppes. Although Mesopotamia has the oldest known wheel, linguistic evidence is used to support the claim that the wheel originated in the Eurasian steppes.

Although the wheel has revolutionised the way early human beings travelled and transported goods from one place to another, the wheel was not a perfect invention.

Children's Outdoor Play & Learning Environments: Returning to Nature

For instance, camels were a much more efficient form of transportation in the desert environment when compared to the wheel. It has also been claimed that between the 2 nd and 6 th centuries A.Click here to subscribe our monthly Leisure eNewsletter to receive extensive coverage of news, trends, analysis and commentary about community-based leisure and entertainment venues.

It is unfortunate that children can't design their outdoor play environments. Research on children's preferences shows that if children had the design skills to do so, their creations would be completely different from the areas called playgrounds that most adults design for them.

Outdoor spaces designed by children would not only be fully naturalized with plants, trees, flowers, water, dirt, sand, mud, animals and insects, but also would be rich with a wide variety of play opportunities of every imaginable type. If children could design their outdoor play spaces, they would be rich developmentally appropriate learning environments where children would want to stay all day.

We are all creatures of our experience, and our common experiences usually shape the conventional wisdom, or paradigms, by which we operate. When most adults were children, playgrounds were asphalt areas with gross motor play equipment such as swings, jungle gyms and slides where they went for recess.

Most adults see this as their model for a children's playground. So when it comes time to plan and design a playground, the paradigm is to search through the catalogues of playground equipment, pick a piece or two that looks good to the adult and place it in an outdoor space which resembles their childhood memories of playgrounds. This is easy and doesn't take a whole lot of effort. Then once or twice a day, teachers let children go outside for a recess from their classroom activities to play on the equipment.

Today, fortunately, most playground equipment is becoming much safer than when adults grew up. National standards encourage the installation of safety fall surfaces and ADA is making the equipment more accessible. However, limiting outdoor playgrounds to gross motor activities and manufactured equipment falls way short of the potential of outdoor areas to be rich play and learning environments for children.

This playground design paradigm paralysis also denies children their birthright to experience the entire natural outdoors which includes vegetation, animals, insects water and sand, not just the sun and air that manufactured playgrounds offer.

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It is a well accepted principal in early childhood education that children learn best through free play and discovery. Children's free play is a complex concept that eludes precise definition, but children's play typically is pleasurable, self-motivated, imaginative, non-goal directed, spontaneous, active, and free of adult-imposed rules1,2. Quality play involves the whole child: gross motor, fine motor, senses, emotion, intellect, individual growth and social interaction. The world once offered thousands of delights of free play to children.

Children used to have access to the world at large, whether it was the sidewalks, streets, alleys, vacant lots and parks of the inner city or the fields, forests, streams and yards of suburbia and the rural countryside.Plano, Texas — With auto shows cancelled since March and none on the horizon, Toyota held a virtual launch event to share plans for its upcoming lineup that will lean hard on hybrid models.

The Sienna minivan and Venza small crossover will be available only as hybrids. The Venza, effectively the station wagon version of the Camry sedan, went out of production inand the Sienna has not previously had a hybrid option.

The model uses a 3. The Venza returns after a 5-year break with a more distinctive style. The updated Venza is taller and sheds all its sedan-like graphics. The two-row crossover shares some mechanical components with the Camry hybrid, but its look is now independent. The automaker plans to import the new Venza from Japan. Dearborn, Michigan — Ford has signed contracts with health systems in four metro areas with major company facilities to quickly test hourly and salaried employees with suspected symptoms of COVID In the Kansas City area, employees will be tested through Liberty Hospital.

Walter Talamonti, Ford Medical Director. If they test positive, we can quickly identify close contact employees who may have been exposed and ask them to self-quarantine for 14 days. This prescription allows employees to receive testing through Beaumont Health. In Louisville, where Ford has two major assembly plants and employs approximately 12, people, employees who exhibit symptoms of COVID will be asked to immediately schedule a telemedicine appointment with a doctor.

Testing will be done through University of Louisville Health. They can then access a drive-through testing site at Liberty Hospital. After a phone screening, they will be given a same day appointment for COVID testing when appropriate. Testing results will be simultaneously shared with Ford doctors in order to quickly identify others who were in close contact with infected employees and immediately have them self-quarantine for 14 days.

In addition to expanding locations for these tests, we are also pursuing the possibility of voluntary antibody testing in the future for our employees. Ford is initially focusing on polymerase chain reaction PCR testing, which identifies if someone is actively infected. To guide the workforce with the new health and safety protocols, Ford has compiled a comprehensive Manufacturing Return to Work Playbook to help protect its workforce, assembled using best practices and input from experts around the world.

Some of the safety protocols include:. The N95 mask is a standard of safety in the healthcare setting and vitally important to protecting healthcare workers and patients. They adhere gently to the face with double-coated skin-friendly adhesive, and are available for use in healthcare settings as a COVID countermeasure.

The ReadiMask is unique because it can form an air-tight seal providing maximum protection while allowing filtration during inhalation and exhalation. The mask is virtually weightless, convenient and easy to use. The design eliminates tight straps or ties that put pressure on the face or get caught in hair. Additionally, ReadiMask has no uncomfortable metal nose clip that can cause skin bruising.

The ReadiMask was designed with a very low breathing resistance and may provide a cooler temperature than other similar masks. Production of these U. The masks will be available for purchase by hospitals, nursing homes, and other healthcare facilities as well as group purchasing organizations and distributors nationwide exclusively through Avery Dennison Medical.

Earlier, the company announced development of a new low-cost disposable plastic face shield. Less than two months later, Mursix has transformed itself into a major manufacturer of personal protective equipment PPEmakingdisposable face shields a week for hospitals and nursing homes across the U. Mursix co-owner Susan Murray Carlock, a former ER nurse, was looking for ways to further diversify into the medical industry when the pandemic hit the U.

And, in a move that proved prescient, Mursix had recently invested in a new 3D printer for rapid prototyping. Murray Carlock and her team of engineers worked over a weekend to develop a medically compliant prototype that went into production only days later. Sourcing materials to produce the face shields was a scavenger hunt initially, Murray Carlock says, but soon Mursix built solid relationships with reliable suppliers.

The automotive lines were retooled to produce the polyester face shields, which are then hand-assembled on site. Mursix partnered with volunteer pilot organizations that transported thousands of Mursix face shields to hospitals across the country during the height of the pandemic in April. Initially, Mursix used a hand-cut template and stapled elastic to it.Electric vehicles are not something new to this world, but with the technological advancement and increased concern on controlling pollution has given it a tag of future mobility.

The rapid development in the field of Power electronics and control techniques has created a space for various types of electric motors to be used in Electric Vehicles. The electric motors used for automotive applications should have characteristics like high starting torque, high power density, good efficiency, etc.

High starting torque capability of the DC Series motor makes it a suitable option for traction application. It was the most widely used motor for traction application in the early s. The advantages of this motor are easy speed control and it can also withstand a sudden increase in load. All these characteristics make it an ideal traction motor. The main drawback of DC series motor is high maintenance due to brushes and commutators. These motors are used in Indian railways.

This motor comes under the category of DC brushed motors. It is similar to DC motors with Permanent Magnets. It is called brushless because it does not have the commutator and brush arrangement. The commutation is done electronically in this motor because of this BLDC motors are maintenance free. BLDC motors are suitable for high power density design approach. The BLDC motors are the most preferred motors for the electric vehicle application due to its traction characteristics.

In this type, the rotor of the motor is present outside and the stator is present inside. It is also called as Hub motors because the wheel is directly connected to the exterior rotor. This type of motors does not require external gear system. In a few cases, the motor itself has inbuilt planetary gears.

This motor makes the overall vehicle less bulky as it does not require any gear system. It also eliminates the space required for mounting the motor. There is a restriction on the motor dimensions which limits the power output in the in-runner configuration. This motor is widely preferred by electric cycle manufacturers like Hullikal, Tronx, Spero, light speed bicycles, etc. In this type, the rotor of the motor is present inside and the stator is outside like conventional motors.

These motor require an external transmission system to transfer the power to the wheels, because of this the out-runner configuration is little bulky when compared to the in-runner configuration.

Low and medium performance scooter manufacturers also use BLDC motors for propulsion. It is due to these reasons it is widely preferred motor for electric vehicle application. The main drawback is the high cost due to permanent magnets. Overloading the motor beyond a certain limit reduces the life of permanent magnets due to thermal conditions.

This motor is also similar to BLDC motor which has permanent magnets on the rotor.The five theories of social change are as follows: 1. Evolutionary Theory 2. Cyclical Theory 3. Economic Mandan Theory of Social Change 4. Conflict Theory 5. Technological Theory. A variety of reasons have been offered throughout history to explain why social change occurs. The problem of explaining social change was central to nineteenth century sociology. Many earlier theories of society that claimed to be scientific were in fact theories of change.

They sought to explain the present in terms of the past. Many different theories were propounded to define and explain social change. Broadly, theories of nineteenth century may be divided into theories of social evolution Saint-Simon, Comte, Spencer, Durkheim etc. All these we have discussed in the previous section. Despite the wide variety in the possible directions change may take, various generalisations have been set forth. Because the lot of mankind generally has improved over the long term, by far the most numerous classes of theories of the direction of change comprise various cumulative or evolutionary trends.

The notion of evolution came into social sciences from the theories of biological evolution. With the advent of Darwinian Theory of biological evolution, society and culture began to be regarded as undergoing the same changes and demonstrating the same trends.

It was conceived that society and culture were subject to the same general laws of biological and organism growth. Some thinkers even identified evolution with progress and proceeded to project into the future more and more perfect and better-adapted social and cultural forms. Charles Darwinthe British biologist, who propounded the theory of biological evolution, showed that species of organisms have evolved from simpler organisms to the more complicated organisms through the processes of variations and natural selection.

The basic assumption of this theory is that change is the characteristic feature of human society. The present observed condition of the society is presumed to be the result of change in the past.

It was assumed that the change is basically the result of operation of forces within the society or culture. Underlying all theories of evolution, there exists a belief of infinite improvement in the next stage over the preceding one.

A road map to the future for the auto industry

That all successive stages of change are higher over preceding stage, i. That the direction of change is from simple to complex, from homogeneity to heterogeneity, from undifferentiated to the differentiated in form and function. All thinking of early sociologists was dominated by a conception of man and society as seen progressing up definite steps of evolution leading through every greater complexity to some final stage of perfection. The notion of evolutionary principles was extremely popular with British anthropologists and sociologists of nineteenth century.

Such as MorganTylerSpencer and Hobhouse Although evolutionary theory in sociology is attributed to Herbert Spencer, it is clear that it was taken for granted by writers as diverse as Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels and V.

Gordon Childe. The conception of evolution was applied not only to the development of societies but also to art, literature, music, philosophy, sciences, religion, economic and political life state and almost every other achievement of the mind of man.

Both Spencer and Durkheim employed the concept of structural differentiation to indicate that as society develops more functions, it becomes structurally more complex.

the motor wheels of social complexity in todays world

This perspective has been elaborated more recently by Talcott Parsons. The general evolutionary model of society is represented by a large number of specific theories.

Saint-Simon, one of the earliest founders of sociology, along with Auguste Comte, for example, put an evolutionary idea of social development, as a sequential progression of organic societies representing increasing levels of advancement. Comte linked developments in human knowledge, culture and society and delineated the following three great stages through which all societies must go—those of conquest, defense and industry.We use cookies essential for this site to function well.

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Practical resources to help leaders navigate to the next normal: guides, tools, checklists, interviews and more. Our mission is to help leaders in multiple sectors develop a deeper understanding of the global economy.

Our flagship business publication has been defining and informing the senior-management agenda since Ford, by contrast, introduced a vehicle for the more immediate future: the Mustang. Ford estimated it would sellMustangs during that first year; in fact, it would sell more thanThe marriage of an exciting car to an exuberant generation was clearly the right idea for Ford. Even so, as the industry recognized, the automobile is but one element of a mobility system—an element governed by extensive regulations, constrained by a need for fuel, and dependent on a network of roadways and parking spaces.

the motor wheels of social complexity in todays world

Automobiles are also a force for change. Over the past half century, their very success has generated pollution and congestion while straining the supply of global resources. The rapid surge of emerging markets, particularly China, has heightened these dynamics.

Ford contracts with local hospitals for COVID-19 testing

Clearly, issues at play in the automotive industry are interrelated. Emerging economies and widespread urbanization will not only affect global sales and the competitive intensity of the industry but also help to shape its digitization. Regulations will continue to compel innovation. Interrelated uncertainties about these forces will create challenging questions for industry leaders.

Emerging markets. How will we respond if competition in China becomes too intense? Which other emerging markets demand our focus now?Dearborn, Michigan — Ford has signed contracts with health systems in four metro areas with major company facilities to quickly test hourly and salaried employees with suspected symptoms of COVID In the Kansas City area, employees will be tested through Liberty Hospital.

Walter Talamonti, Ford Medical Director.

the motor wheels of social complexity in todays world

If they test positive, we can quickly identify close contact employees who may have been exposed and ask them to self-quarantine for 14 days. This prescription allows employees to receive testing through Beaumont Health. In Louisville, where Ford has two major assembly plants and employs approximately 12, people, employees who exhibit symptoms of COVID will be asked to immediately schedule a telemedicine appointment with a doctor.

Testing will be done through University of Louisville Health. They can then access a drive-through testing site at Liberty Hospital. After a phone screening, they will be given a same day appointment for COVID testing when appropriate.

Testing results will be simultaneously shared with Ford doctors in order to quickly identify others who were in close contact with infected employees and immediately have them self-quarantine for 14 days. In addition to expanding locations for these tests, we are also pursuing the possibility of voluntary antibody testing in the future for our employees. Ford is initially focusing on polymerase chain reaction PCR testing, which identifies if someone is actively infected.

To guide the workforce with the new health and safety protocols, Ford has compiled a comprehensive Manufacturing Return to Work Playbook to help protect its workforce, assembled using best practices and input from experts around the world.

Some of the safety protocols include:. The N95 mask is a standard of safety in the healthcare setting and vitally important to protecting healthcare workers and patients. They adhere gently to the face with double-coated skin-friendly adhesive, and are available for use in healthcare settings as a COVID countermeasure.

The ReadiMask is unique because it can form an air-tight seal providing maximum protection while allowing filtration during inhalation and exhalation. The mask is virtually weightless, convenient and easy to use. The design eliminates tight straps or ties that put pressure on the face or get caught in hair. Additionally, ReadiMask has no uncomfortable metal nose clip that can cause skin bruising.

The ReadiMask was designed with a very low breathing resistance and may provide a cooler temperature than other similar masks. Production of these U. The masks will be available for purchase by hospitals, nursing homes, and other healthcare facilities as well as group purchasing organizations and distributors nationwide exclusively through Avery Dennison Medical.

Earlier, the company announced development of a new low-cost disposable plastic face shield. Less than two months later, Mursix has transformed itself into a major manufacturer of personal protective equipment PPEmakingdisposable face shields a week for hospitals and nursing homes across the U. Mursix co-owner Susan Murray Carlock, a former ER nurse, was looking for ways to further diversify into the medical industry when the pandemic hit the U.

And, in a move that proved prescient, Mursix had recently invested in a new 3D printer for rapid prototyping. Murray Carlock and her team of engineers worked over a weekend to develop a medically compliant prototype that went into production only days later. Sourcing materials to produce the face shields was a scavenger hunt initially, Murray Carlock says, but soon Mursix built solid relationships with reliable suppliers.

The automotive lines were retooled to produce the polyester face shields, which are then hand-assembled on site. Mursix partnered with volunteer pilot organizations that transported thousands of Mursix face shields to hospitals across the country during the height of the pandemic in April.

Initially, Mursix used a hand-cut template and stapled elastic to it. Since then, it has automated the process and uses rivets to attach the elastic.


The motor wheels of social complexity in todays world

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